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          Introduction of power grid communication system for smart grid

          Governments and power supply companies around the world are aware that the traditional power grid that has not changed much in the past 100 years will be replaced by a smart grid with higher energy efficiency, flexibility and intelligence. As a self-repairing CNC transmission and distribution network, smart The power grid can transfer electricity from the power plant to the point of use, including the generation of renewable energy that is integrated into the grid. Smart grids can optimize power transmission efficiency, allowing power supply companies to provide users with two-way communication and user-end energy management services, minimize the outage accident rate, and transmit power on demand. Reduced costs for power supply companies and end users, more reliable power supply, and reduced carbon dioxide emissions are the ultimate benefits that smart grids bring to power supply companies and users.

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          Figure 1: Smart grid: the core content of the INNOVATION concept.

          All electric products and equipment must be connected to the power line through the power socket. Therefore, we can think that the power line is a cheap communication medium that always exists. Networking of equipment does not require the laying of expensive cables or the installation of radio frequency systems.

          Powerline narrowband communication is sufficient to maintain simple information exchange, for example, electricity consumption metering, sending commands to actuators, checking systems, etc. In indoor and outdoor environments, power line narrowband communication can achieve many applications. For example, power supply companies can remotely monitor street lights through outdoor grids or implement centralized meter reading (AMR) and automatic meter management (AMM) solutions, while providing multiple customer services, including electricity control and electricity price selection. The indoor power grid can be used for home appliance networking, realizing home or building automation, creating a security anti-theft system, and controlling temperature and lighting brightness. All these functions are inseparable from the power line modem (PLM). Like ordinary modems, the power line modem converts the binary data stream into a sequence of signals with preset characteristics (frequency, signal level), and then converts these signals at the receiving end. Restore to binary data, complete the signal modulation and demodulation process. The power line modem must be able to transmit the modulated signal on the power line, and detect the input signal transmitted from the sending end to the receiving end to complete the signal receiving and sending process.

          As mentioned above, the centralized stopwatch, also known as AMR, is one of the main target applications of power line modems. The technology used in traditional electromechanical meters is no longer suitable for more in-depth and long-term development, but electronic meters can bring power supply enterprises and consumers. More value, including reducing manufacturing costs, maintenance costs, carbon dioxide emissions, and improving the accuracy of electricity metering. The most important thing is to provide consumers with detailed information on actual power consumption and provide real-time service quality data for power supply companies.

          Smart meters are the result of the evolution of AMR technology for centralized meter reading and are a major part of the smart grid. Smart meters bring tangible benefits to power supply companies and consumers: consumers can more accurately monitor electricity usage, for example, using washing machines, dishwashers, or electric water heaters during the lowest electricity prices, while power companies can improve the power generation and transmission effectiveness.

          The emerging smart grid is actually a smart digital grid that is used to define the technical standards for the next generation of transmission and distribution networks. Smart meters can allow consumers' home networks to communicate with smart grids, providing smarter power management services for power supply companies and consumers.

          The smart grid market can be further subdivided into three major market segments: basic equipment (eg, data concentrators), energy meters, and home / building management. Each market has different application requirements.

          The micro-inverter is used to collect solar energy and other renewable energy for power generation, and communicates with the smart grid through a power line modem. The figure below shows the structure of a latest solar energy collection system.

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          Figure 2: Structure diagram of the latest solar energy collection system.

          To meet these application requirements, the industry standardization organization has issued new power line communication standards:

          IEC 61334-5-1 protocol, S-FSK modulation mode data transmission rate up to 2.4 Kbps

          Meters & More specifications, B-FSK and multiple modulation modes n-PSK modulation technology

          PRIME protocol featuring robust OFDM modulation

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          亚洲 欧美 图片 自拍 视频
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